Curcumin Clinical studies
Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials
Deep research over the past 50 years has demonstrated that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against many diseases in humans. Promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudo-tumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic micro-angiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 8 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin’s pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signalling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E(2), prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nano-particles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. This review discusses in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin have been investigated.
[Indexed for MEDLINE]